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掌握英语口语--《特级口语教程》2

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发表于 2007-10-29 23:52:04 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
2: Effective Body Writing

 TOPICS SELECTION

  You can choose and determine your topics by asking strategic questions. To see how this works in detail, imagine that you are giving a speech to asgroupsof high school students on the values of a college education. Your thesis is:“A college education is valuable.”You then ask,“Why is it valuable?”From this question and generate as many answers as possible, without evaluating them. You may come up with answers such as the following:

  1. It helps you get a good job.

  2. It increases your earning potential.

  3. It gives you greater job mobility.

  4. It helps you secure more creative work.

  5. It helps you to appreciate the arts more fully.

  6. It helps you to understand an extremely complex world.

  7. It helps you understand different cultures.

  8. It allows you to avoid taking a regular job for a few years.

  9. It helps you meet lots of people and make new friends.

  10. It helps you increase your personal effectiveness.

  There are, of course, other possibilities, but for purposes of illustration, these 10 possible main points will suffice. But not all 10 are equally valuable or relevant to your audience, so you should look over the list to see how to make it shorter and more meaningful. Try these suggestions:

  1. Eliminate those points that seem least important to your thesis. On this basis you might want to eliminate No. 8 since this seems least consistent with your intended emphasis on the positive values of college.

  2. Combine those points that have a common focus. Notice, for example, that the first four points all center on the values of college in terms of jobs. You might, therefore, consider grouping these four itemssintosone proposition: A college education helps you get a good job.

  This point might be one of the major propositions that could be developed by defining what you mean by a“good job.”This main point or proposition and its elaboration might look like this:

  Ⅰ. A college education helps you get a good job.

  A. College graduates earn higher salaries.

  B. College graduates enter more creative jobs.

  C. College graduates have greater job mobility.

  Note that A, B, and C are all aspects or subdivisions of a“good job.”

  3. Select points that are most relevant to or that interest your audience. On this basis you might eliminate No. 5 and No. 7 on the assumption that the audience will not see learning about the arts or different cultures as exciting or valuable at the present time. You might also decide that high school students would be more interested in increasing personal effectiveness, so you might select No. 10 for inclusion as a second major proposition: A college education increases your personal effectiveness.

  Earlier you developed the subordinate points in your first proposition (the A, B, and C of I) by defining more clearly what you meant by a“good job.”Follow the same process here by defining what you mean by“personal effectiveness.”It might look something like this:

  Ⅱ. A college education helps increase your personal effectiveness.

  A. A college education helps you improve your ability to communicate.

  B. A college education helps you acquire the skills for learning how to think.

  C. A college education helps you acquire coping skills.

  Follow the same procedure you used to generate the subordinate points (A, B, and C) to develop the subheading under A, B, and C. For example, point A might be dividedsintostwo major subheads:

  A. A college education helps improve your ability to communicate.

  a. College improves your writing skills.

  b. College improves your speech skills.

  Develop points B and C in essentially the same way by defining more clearly (in B) what you mean by“learning how to think”and (in C) what you mean by“coping skills.”

  The body of a speech contains three or four sections related to the topic. It includes an outline of the major ideas, and it also has information that supports and clarifies those ideas. In the same way as clarified in the previous example, you can organize some topics like the following first.

  Example:

  Speech Entitled“Having a Happy Marriage”

  Choose the best honeymoon vacation.

  Discuss important financial matters together.

  Be courteous to each other.

  Learn to compromise.

  Bring up your children well.

  Respect your spouse’s property.

  Buy a nice home together.

  Example:

  Speech Entitled“Applying for a Job”

  Choose an appropriate wardrobe.

  Behave appropriately during the personal interview.

  Write a résumé.

  Find the desired position.

  Schedule appointments.

  Get a flexible work schedule.

  Learn new skills.

  Second, narrow your list subtopics. Review your list and select the three or four subtopics that will best develop your speech in the time allowed. These subtopics will become the main headings of your speech.

  Example:

  Speech Entitled“Having a Happy Marriage”

  Discuss important financial matters together.

  Be courteous to each other.

  Learn to compromise.

  Respect your spouse’s property.

  Example:

  Speech Entitled“Applying for a Job”

  Behave appropriately during the personal interview.

  Write a résumé.

  Find the desired position.

  Schedule appointments.

  Third,sgroupsyour subtopics logically so that one leads naturallysintosthe next one.

  Example:

  Speech Entitled“Having a Happy Marriage”

  Respect your spouse’s property.

  Be courteous to each other.

  Discuss important financial matters together.

  Learn to compromise.

  Example:

  Speech Entitled“Applying for a Job”

  Find the desired position.

  Write a résumé.

  Schedule appointments.

  Behave appropriately during the personal interview.

  Fourth, develop your subtopics with factual information, logical proof, and visual aids. If your subtopics are supported and well-organized, your sections will be interesting and your listeners will better understand and remember your speech.

  

ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS

  Once you have identified the major propositions you wish to include in your speech, you need to devote attention to how you will arrange these propositions in the body of your speech. When you follow a clearly identified organizational pattern, your listeners will be able to see your speech as a whole and will be able to see more clearly the connections and relationships among your various pieces of information. Should they have a momentary lapse in attention - as they surely will at some point in just about every speech - they will be able to refocus their attention and not lose your entire train of thought.

  1. Temporal Pattern

  Organizing your propositions on the basis of some temporal (time) relationship is a popular and easy-to-use organizational pattern. It is also a pattern that listeners will find easy to follow. Generally, when you use this pattern, you organize your speechsintostwo, three, or four major parts, beginning with the past and working up to the present or the future, or beginning with the present or the future and working back to the past.

  The temporal (sometimes called“chronological”) pattern is especially appropriate for informative speeches in which you wish to describe events or processes that occur over time. It is also useful when you wish to demonstrate how something works or how to do something.

  A speech on the development of language in the child might be organized in a temporal pattern and could be divided something like this:

  The Development of Language

  Ⅰ. Babbling occurs around the fifth month.

  Ⅱ. Lallation occurs around the sixth month.

  Ⅲ. Echolalia occurs around the ninth month.

  Ⅳ.“Communication”occurs around the twelfth month.

  Here you would cover each of the events in a time sequence beginning with the earliest stage and working up to the final stage - in this case the stage of true communication.

  Most historical topics lend themselves to organization by time. The events leading up to the Civil War, the steps toward a college education, or the history of writing would all be appropriate for temporal patterning. A time pattern would also be appropriate in describing the essential steps in a multistep process in which temporalsgroupsis especially important. The steps involved in making interpersonal contact with another person might look something like this:

  Making Interpersonal Contact

  Ⅰ. Spot the person you want to make contact with.

  Ⅱ. Make eye contact.

  Ⅲ. Give some positive nonverbal sign.

  Ⅳ. Make verbal contact.

  2. Spatial Pattern

  You can also organize your main points on the basis of space. This pattern is especially useful when you wish to describe objects or places. Like the temporal pattern, it is an organizational pattern that listeners will find easy to follow as you progress, from top to bottom, left to right, inside to outside, or from east to west, for example.

  Geographical topics generally fit wellsintosorganization by spatial patterning. For example, for a speech on places to visit in southern Europe, you might go from west to east, considering the countries to visit and, within these countries, the cities. The main heading of such a speech might look like this:

  Touring Southern Europe

  Ⅰ. Your first stop is Portugal.

  Ⅱ. Your second stop is Spain.

  Ⅲ. Your third stop is Italy.

  Ⅳ. Your fourth stop is Greece.

  Similarly, the structure of a place, object, or even animal is easily placedsintosa spatial pattern. You might describe the layout of a hospital, school, skyscraper, or perhaps even the structure of a dinosaur with a spatial pattern of organization.

  3. Topical Pattern

  Perhaps the most popular pattern for organizing informative speeches is the topical pattern. When your topic conveniently divides itselfsintossubdivisions, each of which is clear and approximately equal in importance, this pattern is most useful. It is not, however, a catch-all category for topics that do not seem to fitsintosany of the other patterns. Rather, this pattern should be regarded as one appropriate to the particular topic being considered. For example, the topical pattern is an obvious one for organizing a speech on the powers of the government. Here the divisions are clear.

  The Powers of Government

  Ⅰ. The legislative branch is controlled by Congress.

  Ⅱ. The executive branch is controlled by the President.

  Ⅲ. The judicial branch is controlled by the courts.

  Note that the topic itself, the powers of the government, divides itselfsintosthree parts: legislative, executive and judicial. It remains for you to organize your various materials under these three logical headings.

  A speech on the forms of communication would most likely be organized around a topical pattern. It would look something like this:

  Forms of Communication

  Ⅰ. Interpersonal communication occurs within oneself.

  Ⅱ. Interpersonal communication occurs between two people.

  Ⅲ. Public communication occurs between speaker and audience.

  Ⅳ. Mass communication occurs through some audio or visual transmitter.

  A speech on important cities of the world might be organizedsintosa topical pattern, as might speeches on problems facing the college graduate, great works of literature, the world’s major religions, and the like. Each of these topics would have several subtopics or divisions of approximately equal importance; consequently, a topical pattern seems most appropriate.

  4. Problem-Solution Pattern

  The problem-solution pattern is especially useful in persuasive speechesswheresyou want to convince the audience that a problem exists and that your solution would solve or alleviate the problem.

  Let’s say you are attempting to persuade an audience that teachers should be given higher salaries and increased benefits. Here a problem-solution pattern might be appropriate. You might, for example, discuss in the first part of the speech the problems confronting contemporary education such as (1) industry lures away the most highly qualified graduates, (2) many excellent teachers leave the field after two or three years, and (3) teaching is currently a low-status occupation.

  In the second part of your speech you might consider the possible solutions that you wish your audience to accept. These might include, for example: (1) salaries for teachers must be made competitive with salaries offered by private industry, and (2) the benefits teachers receive must be made as attractive as those offered by industry. Your speech, in outline form, might look like this:

  Ⅰ. Three major problems confront elementary education.

  A. Industry lures away the most qualified graduates.

  B. Numerous excellent teachers leave the field after two or three years.

  C. Teaching is currently a lowstatus occupation.

  Ⅱ. Two major solutions to these problems exist.

  A. Salaries for teachers should be increased.

  B. Benefits for teachers should be made more attractive.

  5. Cause-Effect/Effect-Cause Pattern

  Similar to problem-solution pattern is the cause-effect or effect-cause pattern. This pattern is useful in persuasive speeches in which you want to convince your audience of the causal connection existing between two events or two element. In the cause-effect pattern you divide the speechsintostwo major sections, causes and effects.

  For example, a speech on the reasons for highway accidents or birth defects might lend itself to a cause-effect pattern. Here you might first consider, say, the causes of highway accidents or birth defects and then some of the effects, for example, the number of deaths, the number of accidents, and so on.

  A speech on hypertension, designed to spell out some of the causes and effects, might look like this:

  Ⅰ. There are three main causes of hypertension.

  A. High salt intake increases blood pressure.

  B. Excess weight increases blood pressure.

  C. Anxiety increases blood pressure.

  Ⅱ. There are three major effects of hypertension.

  A. Nervousness increases.

  B. Heart rate increases.

  C. Shortness of breath increases.

 

 LANGUAGE

  1. Using Explanations

  Explanation is the act or process of making something plain or comprehensible. It is often accomplished by a simple, concise exposition that sets forth the relation between a whole and its parts. For instance:

  A state is one of the internally autonomous political units composing a federation under a sovereign government; for example, New York, Montana, and Alaska are states within the United States.

  Explanation is also accomplished by providing a definition. This alternative can take a variety of forms:

  ●Providing a dictionary definition (which typically involves placing the construct to be defined in a category and then explaining the features that distinguish this construct from all other members of the category - e.g.,“Primary means‘first in time, order, or importance”)

  ●Using synonyms (words with approximately the same meaning - e.g.,“Mawkish as an adjective indicates that someone or something is sentimental, maudlin, or gushy”) and/or antonyms (words that have opposite meanings)

  ●Using comparisons (showing listeners the similarities between something unfamiliar and something familiar) and contrasts (supporting an idea by emphasizing the differences between two constructs)

  ●Providing an operational definition (defining a process by describing the steps involved in that process - e.g.,“To create calligraphy, you begin with a wide-nibbed pen...”)

  To be effective, explanations must be framed within the experiences of members of the audience and cannot be too long or abstract.

  2. Using Examples

  Examples serve as an illustration, a model, or an instance of what is to be explained. They can either be developed in detail (an illustration) or presented in abbreviated, undeveloped fashion ( a specific instance). An illustration - an extended example presented in narrative form - can be either hypothetical (a story that could but did not happen) or factual (a story that did happen). For example, a presenter might involve the listeners in a hypothetical illustration by suggesting,“Imagine yourself getting ready to give a speech. You reachsintosyour bag for the manuscript that you carefully prepared over the course of the past week. It isn’t there! You madly search through everything in the bag.”Whether hypothetical or factual, the illustration should be relevant and appropriate to the audience, typical rather than exceptional, and vivid and impressive in detail.

  A specific instance is an undeveloped or condensed illustration or example. Therefore, it requires listeners to recognize the names, events, or situations in the instance. If a presenter, for example, uses“President Dewey”as a specific illustration of the dangers of poor sampling techniques when engaged in public opinion polling, and the audience has never heard of Thomas Dewey (Harry Truman’s Republican opponent in the 1948 presidential election), this specific instance will not be an effective way of making the point clear and vivid.

  3. Using Statistics

  As a form of supporting material, statistics are used to describe the end result of collecting, organizing, and interpreting numerical data.

  When using statistics, you should be aware of two basic concerns: (1) Are the statistics accurate and unbiased? (2) Are they clear and meaningful? Addressing the first issue involves responses to such questions as: Are the statistical techniques appropriate and are they appropriately used? Do the statistics cover enough cases and length of time? Although you may not have the expertise to answer such questions, you can ask about the credibility of the source of the statistics. Do you have any reason to believe that the person orsgroupsfrom whom you got the statistics might be biased? Are these statistics consistent with other things you know about the situation? Addressing the second issue involves more pragmatic considerations: Can you translate difficult-to-comprehend numberssintosmore immediately understandable terms? How, for example, might you make the difference between 400,000 and 400 million more vivid? How can you provide adequate context for the data? Is it fair, for example, to compare 1960 dollars with 1992 dollars? Could a graph or visual aid clarify the data and statistical trends? As we will see shortly, supplementing a verbal presentation with a visual aid can greatly increase comprehension and retention.
第二章: 有效正文写作
 

 主题选择

  你可以通过提出一些关键性的问题来选择并确定你的主题。为了弄清详细的操作方法,不妨想像你正在给一批中学生做有关大学教育的意义的演讲。你的论题是:“大学教育意义重大。”那么你可以提出:“为什么其意义重大?”通过对这个问题的回答,找出尽可能多的答案,但不需要做出评价。你可能会想出下面这些答案:

  1.有助于你找个好工作。

  2.提高你将来赚钱的能力。

  3.提高你将来工作的机动灵活性。

  4.有助于你找到一个更具创造性的工作。

  5.有助于你更充分地欣赏艺术。

  6.有助于你认识极其复杂的世界。

  7.有助于你了解不同的文化。

  8.你可以不必几年如一日地循规蹈矩地工作。

  9.有助于你扩大社交范围,广交朋友。

  10.有助于你提高个人效率。

  当然,还会有其他答案,但是就例证而言,这十个要点足够了。但是,对你的听众来说这十点并非都有意义,因此你应该快速地浏览一遍这些要点,看看如何对其进行删减,使其更有意义。下面这些方法可以一试:

  1.删除那些对你的中心思想意义不大的要点。根据这个原则,你可能会删除第8点,这一点似乎与你要重点论述的大学教育的积极意义关系不大。

  2.把意义相近的观点联合起来。比如,你注意到,头四个要点全是关于大学教育在就业方面的意义。因此,你可以考虑把这四点归为一组,形成一个论点:大学教育有助于找到理想工作。

  这一论点可以作为主要论点的一个分论点,而这些分论点可以通过界定你所指的“理想工作”而展开。该论点及其阐述可以这样:

  Ⅰ.大学教育有助于找到理想的工作。

  A.大学毕业生的薪水较高。

  B.大学毕业生可以找到更赋有创造性的工作。

  C.大学毕业生可以经常调换工作。

  注意:A、B、C都是“理想工作”的不同方面。

  3.选择与听众关系最为密切、能引起他们兴趣的要点。根据这一原则,考虑到目前听众不会视了解艺术或不同文化为激动人心或有意义的事,你可能会删除第5点和第7点。你可能会断定高中生对提高个人效率会更感兴趣,因此而选择第10点作为另一个主要论点:大学教育可以提高你的个人效率。

  在前面,在第一个论点中你通过明白晓畅地界定“理想工作”来展开分论点。现在再老调重弹,界定这里你所说的“个人效率”。可以这样:

  Ⅱ.大学教育可以提高你的个人效率。

  A.大学教育有助于增强你的交际能力。

  B.大学教育有助于你获得学会如何思考的技能。

  C.大学教育有助于你获得合作技能。

  还是按照你先前的程序,拟出分论点(A、B、C),在A、B、C下展开小标题。比如,论点A可以分成两个主小标题:

  A.大学教育有助于增强你的交际能力。

  a.大学可以提高你的写作技能。

  b.大学可以提高你的演讲技能。

  按照同样的方法,给“学会如何思考”和“合作技能”下一个清楚的定义,把论点B和论点C展开。

  演讲的正文包括三个或者四个部分,这些部分都与主题有关。它包括一个要点提纲,还包括支撑和阐明这些要点的信息。按照前面例子的阐明方法,首先你可以像下面这样组织话题。

  举例:

  题为“拥有幸福的婚姻”的演讲

  选择最佳的蜜月假期

  共同商讨重要的财政问题

  相敬如宾

  学会让步

  抚养好子女

  尊重配偶的财产

  共同购置温馨家园

  举例:

  题为“申请职位”的演讲

  选择得体的服饰

  面试时举止得体

  撰写个人简历

  找到理想的职位

  安排约会

  制订一份灵活的时间表

  学习新的技能

  第二,减少你的副题。检查你的提纲,选出三到四个能在允许的时间使你的演讲充分展开的副题。这些副题就成为你演讲的主要标题。

  举例:

  题为“拥有幸福婚姻”的演讲

  共同商讨重要的财政问题

  相敬如宾

  学会让步

  尊重配偶的财产

  举例:

  题为“申请职位”的演讲

  面试时举止得体

  撰写个人简历

  找到理想的职位

  安排约会

  第三,按照逻辑排列副题,以便一个副题可以自然而然转入下一个副题。

  举例:

  题为“拥有幸福婚姻”的演讲

  尊重配偶的财产

  相敬如宾

  共同商讨重要财政问题

  学会让步

  举例:

  题为“申请职位”的演讲

  找到理想的职位

  撰写个人简历

  安排约会

  面试时举止得体

  第四,用事实、合乎逻辑的证明、形象的手段展开你的副主题。只有副主题得到充分的证明和完善的组织,你的演讲才会趣味盎然,听众才能理解透彻,印象深刻。

 

 组织模式

  一旦你确定了演讲的主题,你就需要集中精力搞好这些主题在正文中的布局。如果你按照脉络清晰的组织模式来组织,听众会感到你的演讲浑然一体,就能够清楚地感受到你所提供的各种信息之间的相互关系。如果他们一时走神--这种情形几乎在任何演讲中都会出现--他们也能够在回过神来时跟上你的思路。

  1.时间关系模式

  按照一定的时间关系组织主题是一种流行的简单易学的组织模式,同时也是一种听众易于接受的组织模式。一般来说,如果采用这种结构,你需要把你的演讲分成两个、三个或者四个大的部分来组织,从过去说起,再到现在,直到将来,也可以从现在或者将来说起,再返回到过去。

  时间关系模式特别适合于告知性的演讲。在这种演讲中,你一般希望按照时间发展顺序来描述一些事件或过程。如果你想展示某种事物的存在状态,或者如何做某件事,这一模式也非常适用。

  用时间关系模式组织一个关于儿童语言发展的演讲,可以分成这样几个部分:语言的发展

  Ⅰ.第五个月开始发出咿咿呀呀的声音。

  Ⅱ.第六个月开始发出喃喃之语。

  Ⅲ.第九个月开始学着模仿说话。

  Ⅳ.大致一年后开始“交流”。

  这里你可以从第一个阶段开始直到最后阶段--即真正的交流阶段--按照时间顺序囊括每件事。

  大多数与历史有关的话题都可以以时间顺序来组织。导致美国内战的事件、考入大学的过程或者历史著述都适于时间关系模式。这种模式还适于描写多重步骤过程的关键步骤,在这一过程中,时间顺序尤其重要。涉及人与人交往的步骤可能会是这样的:建立人际交往

  Ⅰ.发现你想接触的人。

  Ⅱ.目光接触。

  Ⅲ.发出某种积极的暗示。

  Ⅳ.语言接触。

  2.空间关系模式

  你可以按照空间关系组织要点。这种模式尤其适合于对物体或地方进行描述。与时间关系模式一样,这一模式的运用有助于听众跟上你的思路,比如,从上到下,从左到右,从里到外或从东到西。

  一般来说,地理类的主题特别适合按照空间关系模式进行组织。比如,做一个有关游览南欧各地的演讲,你就可以按照由西往东的顺序,数着要游览的国家。主要标题可以这样写:

  游南欧

  Ⅰ.第一站是葡萄牙。

  Ⅱ.第二站是西班牙。

  Ⅲ.第三站是意大利。

  Ⅳ.第四站是希腊。

  同样,地方、物体甚至动物的结构都易于按照空间关系模式来写。你可以运用空间关系模式对一所医院、一所学校、一幢摩天大楼的布局,也许甚至是一只恐龙的结构,进行描述。

  3.主题模式

  也许主题模式是信息性演讲最为常见的模式。如果你的主题便于进行细分,而每一部分又一清二楚,意义基本相同的话,这种模式就再合适不过了。然而,对于难以归类的主题,这一模式并非万能。相反,它应是一种适合于经过反复思考的特殊主题的模式。比如,对组织一篇关于政府权力的演讲来说,主题模式显然是很合适的。因为其分工一清二楚。政府的权力

  Ⅰ.国会控制立法机关。

  Ⅱ.总统控制行政机关。

  Ⅲ.法院控制司法机关。

  注意,主题本身--政府的权力--就可以分成三个部分:立法、行政和司法。你要做的是在这三个合乎逻辑的标题下组织各种素材。

  如果演讲的内容是关于传播的形式,最有可能用主题模式来组织。可以这样:

  传播的形式Ⅰ.自我传播。

  Ⅱ.人与人之间的人际传播。

  Ⅲ.演讲者与听众之间的公共传播。

  Ⅳ.通过声音或画面传输的大众传播。

  一个关于世界重要城市的演讲可以用主题模式来组织,大学毕业生面临的问题、伟大的文学作品、世界主要宗教等,诸如此类的演讲都可以这样组织。这些主题每一个都可以分成几个意义相近的副主题;因此,主题模式似乎最为适合。

  4.问题-解决模式

  问题-解决模式特别适合于说服性演讲,这种演讲的目的在于使听众确信某一问题的存在,而你的方法可以解决或者减轻这个问题。

  比如,你想说服听众应该提高教师的工资和福利。问题-解决模式就比较合适。比如,在演讲的第一部分你可以讨论一下当今教育面临的问题,像(1)第二产业吸引了最优秀的毕业生,(2)很多优秀的教师工作两三年后就跳槽,(3)目前教书地位不高。

  在第二部分,你可以考虑说出你想让听众接受的可能的解决办法。比如,(1)教师的工资必须与私营企业的工资不相上下,(2)教师的福利必须与企业福利一样有吸引力。你的演讲提纲可以这样列:

  Ⅰ.基础教育面临的三大问题:

  A.企业吸引了最优秀的毕业生。

  B.很多优秀的教师工作两三年后就跳槽。

  C.目前教书地位不高。

  Ⅱ.问题的两个主要解决方法:

  A.应该提高教师的工资。

  B.应该增强教师福利的吸引力。

  5.原因-结果/结果-原因模式

  原因-结果/结果-原因模式与问题-解决模式相似。这一模式适用于说服性演讲,在这种演讲中你想让听众确信两件事情或两种因素之间存在着因果联系。运用原因-结果模式,你可以把演讲分成两大部分:原因和结果。

  比如,一个关于公路交通事故原因或出生缺陷原因的演讲就可以运用原因-结果模式。你首先要考虑公路交通事故或出生缺陷的起因,然后是其结果,比如,死亡人数、事故数,等等。

  旨在说明高血压起因和结果的演讲可以这样组织:

  Ⅰ.高血压的三大起因:A.盐摄入量过高导致血压升高。

  B.过度肥胖导致血压升高。

  C.焦虑导致血压升高。

  Ⅱ.高血压的三大影响:

  A.神经过敏加剧。

  B.心跳加速。

  C.呼吸困难。

 

 语言

  1.运用解释

  解释就是使事物通俗或易于理解的过程。这主要是通过简要的讲解整体与部分的关系来进行。比如:

  州就是指一个主权政府下的联盟组成的内部自治的政治单位;比如,纽约、蒙大拿、阿拉斯加都是美国境内的州。

  也可以用下定义来进行解释。下定义可以采取各种形式:

  ●查字典找定义(这主要是将概念归类定义,然后解释其区别于同类概念中其他概念的特征--比如,“根源的”意思是“时间上、次序上或重要性上是第一位的”)

  ●用同义词(大致意思相同的词--比如,作为形容词,“多愁善感”指的是某人或者某物感情用事、感情脆弱或者易动感情)或者反义词(意思相反的词)

  ●运用比较(向听众说明不熟悉的事物与相同事物之间的相似之处)和对照(着重强调两个概念之间的不同以说明一个观点)

  ●提供一个操作性的定义(通过描述过程中的步骤来给这个过程下定义,比如,“要写书法,你得从用大头笔开始……”)

  解释要想奏效,就不能超出听众的常识范围,也不能太长或者太抽象。

  2.运用事例

  事例是要解释的事物的一种说明、一种示范或一种实例。既可以把事例详细展开(具体实例),也可以简要地概述(简例)。具体实例--一种用叙述的方式展开的事例--既可以是假设的(可能发生但并未发生的故事),也可以是真实的(确实发生了的故事)。比如,一个演讲者可以这样将听众带入假设的描述:“想像你准备站起来做演讲。你把手伸进书包拿稿子,要知道这可是你花了一个星期的时间精心准备的演讲稿。天哪,不在!你发了疯似地把书包翻了个底朝天。”不管是虚构还是事实,你所做的描述要与听众有关,要适合于他们;要有代表性而非特殊性;要形象生动具体,给人以深刻印象。

  一个简例就是一个尚未展开或压缩了的例子。因此,这要求听众能搞清楚事例中的人名、事件或情况。比如,如果演讲者用“杜威总统”作为具体例子来说明忙于民意测验但缺乏取样技巧是危险的,可听众从未听说过汤姆斯·杜威(1948年总统大选中哈利·杜鲁门的共和党对手),那么这个实例就不能称之为论述清楚生动的有效方法。

  3.运用数据

  作为一种论据材料,数据是用来描述收集、组织、阐述数字的最终结果的。

  运用数据时,你应该具备两个基本的意识:(1)这些数据准确无误、客观可靠吗?(2)这些数据一目了然、具有价值吗?对第一个问题的重视涉及到对诸如此类问题的回答:统计手段是否合适?运用得是否恰当?这些数据在样本数量和时间跨度上是否足够有效?虽然你可能无力回答这类问题,但是,你可以向数据来源的可信性提出质疑。你能保证相信你的数据提供者不存在偏见吗?这些数据与你了解的情况一致吗?对第二个问题的重视涉及到更为实际的考虑:你是否能够把难于理解的数字解释得明白晓畅、一听就懂?比如,你用什么更为生动的方法把40万美元与4亿美元清楚地加以区分?你如何为这一数据提供充足的背景?比如,把1960年的美元数额与1992年的美元数额做对比是否公平?图表或视听手段的运用是否使数据和统计走向阐释得更为明确?简而言之,运用视听手段补口头演讲之不足可以使之通俗易懂,加深印象。
3: Effective Conclusion

  CONCLUSION FUNCTIONS

  Your introduction creates an important first impression; your conclusion leaves an equally important final impression. A strong conclusion serves three purposes. First, it emphasizes the main idea in a memorable way. Second, it motivates the audience to act. And third, it provides closure to the whole speech.

  1. Emphasize the Main Idea

  The conclusions of a number of famous speeches are among the most memorable statements we have. For instance, General Douglas MacArthur concluded his farewell to the nation in these memorable words.

  Example:

  “Old soldiers never die; they just fade away.”And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away - an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty. Good-bye.

  2. Motivate the Audience to Act

  Motivation is one of the necessary components in an effective conclusion. If your speech is informative, you may want the audience to think about the topic or to further research the topic. If your speech is persuasive, you may want your audience to take some kind of feasible action.

  In a speech on campus crime, the speaker concluded in the following words.

  Example:

  The vast majority of crimes that take place on college and university campuses are completely avoidable. By simply remembering that more and more people are falling victim to campus crime because many times they feel too safe and don’t take necessary precautions, you can keep yourself from becoming another in the growing list of victims of campus crime.

  3. Provide Closure

  A good conclusion provides a good sense of closure, letting the audience know that the speech has ended. You may achieve closure by referring to future events to take place. Notice how effectively John Silber uses this approach in a speech on higher education.

  Example:

  Each of these three issues has relevance not only for Americans but for any country seriously concerned about higher education and its relation to democracy. They are not the only issues of importance I have raised today, but they form a basis for further discussion. I am looking forward to a fruitful exchange of ideas in the panels that will follow.

  

CONCLUSION TECHNIQUES

  You can develop an effective, memorable conclusion by applying one of these six common techniques: (1)using a summary,(2)telling a story,(3)using a quotation,(4)referring to the introduction,(5)asking a question, or (6)appealing to action. Many of these techniques echo those used in introductions. If you use the same technique for you conclusion as for your introduction, your speech will seem balanced and symmetrical. However, you can also be quite effective if you open with one technique and close with another. Of course, as with introduction techniques, not every conclusion technique is right for every speech or occasion.

  1. Using a Summary

  When you use a summary to finish your speech, you help your audience remember your major points and central ideas.

  John summarized his speech on emissions tampering in an effective way, casting the summary as an expression of his fears about the problem and the actions that could solve those fears.

  Example:

  I’m frightened. Frightened that nothing I could say would encourage the 25 percent of emissions-tampering Americans to change their ways and correct the factors that cause their autos to pollute disproportionately. Frightened that the American public will not respond to a crucial issue unless the harms are both immediate and observable. Frightened that the EPA will once again prove very sympathetic to industry. Three simple steps will alleviate my fear: inspection, reduction in lead content, and, most importantly, awareness.

  2. Telling a Story

  A story makes an effective conclusion because it helps your listeners remember what your speech was about. This is a less direct technique than the summary, but it works well when you can connect a vivid or dramatic story with your central idea or topic. When audience members recall the story, they’ll also remember your message.

  Philip M. Burgess, president of the Center for the New West, concluded his commencement address to graduates of the University of Toledo in Ohio with a story. He spoke about Roger Bannister, the first person to run a mile in less than four minutes. After Bannister’s 1954 achievement, runner after runner followed in Bannister’s footsteps. Here’s how Burgess tied this story to his central idea.

  Example:

  Runners and coaches now believed in their objective. They now believed in themselves and gained confidence in their new methods of preparation and training. Armed with the knowledge that it could be done, they simply went out and did it - again ... and again ... and again–improving with each passing year. So that’s my message to you today. Defend your legacy of freedom. Believe in our society and its capacity to provide new opportunities for those willing to take risks and accommodate change. But most of all, believe in youself. Have confidence in your preparation and training. And then, go out there and do it again ... and again ... and again - improving with each passing year.

  3. Using a Quotation

  You can also conclude your speech with a quotation that’s appropriate for your central idea or topic. You can quote directly or you can paraphrase if you don’t want to include the entire quotation. In all cases, be sure to show your audience how the quotation or the person being quoted relates to your message.

  Consider how Meryl Irwin, a student at Concordia College in Minnesota, used a quotation to close her speech about the need for specialized emergency medical care for children.

  Example:

  You now know that children need specialized emergency care, and that the present system isn’t giving it to them. Through the solutions I presented, we can do our part to make sure that the children we care about don’t become just additional testimonials for reform. I’d like to leave you with the words of Dr. Richard Flyer as a reminder of why action is needed now. Dr. Flyer says,“The worst part about it is, after its all over, a child is dead. And the parents come up and thank the doctor. They say,‘We know you did everything you could.My head is exploding, because I know, too often, its not true.”

  4. Referring to the Introduction

  Another way to close your speech is by referring to your introduction in your conclusion. This technique brings your listeners full circle, ending your speechswheresyou began. In the process, you show your listeners how the major points you made in the body of your speech connect with what you said in your introduction.

  You have already seen how student Gretchen Richter used a story to introduce her speech,“Health Care Combat Zones.”Now look at how she referred to her introduction during her conclusion.

  Example:

  Tim Dufelmeier’s heroic act in the California emergency room produced some healthy outcomes. All three wounded physicians will make full recoveries. Security in the emergency room has been upgraded by installing a wall of bullet-proof glass and card-key systems to restrict access. Assault in the medical arena is something we all need to combat. After all, the only thrills we need in the hospital are the life-saving efforts of our doctors and nurses.

  5. Asking a Question

  Just as you can ask a question to arouse your listeners- curiosity at the start of your speech, you can leave your audience with a question at the end of speech. This is a common way to end a persuasive speech, but it can be equally effective for informative, entertaining, or motivational speeches. By using a question in a persuasive speech, you help prod your audience to take action. In contrast, when you pose a question in other kinds of speeches, you give listeners food for thought.

  For example, Norm Bertasavage used a rhetorical question to conclude a speech to a local American Legion post. His speech commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of D-Day in World WarⅡ, the day that the Allied forces invaded Normandy to battle Hitler’s forces. He ended this way.

  Example:

  That day was a day of reckoning. It was a day when the bill came due. It was the day the price was paid for past failures. As we call to mind today those who paid that price on that day, we must ask ourselves one question. If we again let freedom and liberty slip through our fingers, who will come to pay the price to restore democracy and Western civilization? Remember this.

  6. Appealing to Action

  Earlier, you saw how John Ferguson introduced his speech to high school students during a Veteran’s Day assembly. Now look at the way Ferguson concluded that speech.

  Example:

  Let me leave you with an idea. If you truly desire to honor Vietnam veterans don’t stop with this assembly. Seek out those who served (perhaps your father, mother, uncle, aunt, teacher, or neighbor). Thank them for their service. Ask them to share their feeling and memories. That will bring them real honor, because in so doing you are telling them you understand and value their experiences and contribution. Again, from my heart, I thank you for the privilege of speaking to you this morning.

  The first sentence of Ferguson’s conclusion warned the audience that his speech was winding down. His next few sentences asked the audience to take action, something else a conclusion accomplishes. The last sentence signaled that he was finished speaking. In this way, Ferguson avoided an abrupt ending to the speech, and he left his audience with a sense of closure.
第三章: 生动有力的结尾
  

结尾的作用

  你的开场白给人留下了重要的第一印象,结尾同样要留下重要的最后的印象。一个强有力的结尾能起到三种作用:第一,强调中心思想,加深印象。第二,激发听众的行动。第

  三,结束整个演讲。

  1.强调中心思想

  很多著名演讲的结尾都让我们记忆犹新,耳熟能详。比如,麦克阿瑟将军的退休演讲中,结尾的几句话就让人久久难忘。

  举例:

  “老兵们永远不会死去,他们只是淡出。”就像那首民歌里的老兵一样,现在我结束了军旅生涯,正在淡出--因为上帝赐予一个老兵能领会职责的智慧,他会尽力去完成。再见了。

  2.激发听众行动

  提供动机是生动有力的结尾的一个必要因素。如果你演讲是信息性的,你可能会希望引发听众对主题进行思考或进一步探讨。如果你的演讲是说服性的,你可能会希望听众采取某种可行的行动。

  在一个关于校园犯罪的演讲中,演讲者用了下面这段话作为结尾。

  举例:

  大多数大学校园里的犯罪行为都是完全可以避免的。在很多场合下,由于人们感到过于安全而放弃了采取必要的措施,所以越来越多的人才成了校园犯罪的受害者。如果记住这一点,你就完全可以避免受害。

  3.进行收尾

  一个理想的结尾能够制造出一种完美的终止感,让听众知道演讲结束了。你可以通过展望未来来取得终止的效果。注意约翰·西里博在他关于高等教育的演讲中是如何有效地运用了这一方法的。

  举例:

  这三个问题不仅与美国人相关,而且与任何高度关心高等教育的国家相关,与民主相关。它们不仅是我今天提出的重要问题,而且还为深入讨论奠定了基础。在接下来的小组讨论中,我期望能富有成效地交换意见。

  

结尾的技巧

  你可以运用六种常见的技巧中的任何一个来做一个生动有力、让人回味的结尾:1.总结全文,2.讲述故事,3.运用引言,4.呼应开头,5.提出问题,6.号召行动。很多技巧与开场白中的技巧是一样的。如果你在结尾运用与开场白相同的技巧,那么,你的演讲会有一种首尾呼应、有条不紊的感觉。不过,如果你用一种技巧开篇,而用另一种技巧收尾,也可以给人留下深刻的印象。当然,与开场白的技巧一样,并非每一个结尾技巧都适用于任何演讲或任何场合。

  1.总结全文

  运用总结全文结束演讲,有助于加深听众对演讲要点和中心思想的印象。

  约翰在他关于“乱排废气”的演讲中,娴熟地运用了总结全文的技巧结束了演讲。他利用总结全文表达了他对这一问题的担忧,提出了消除这一担忧的行动方法。

  举例:

  我很担心。担心我无力鼓励25%乱排废气的美国人去改正他们的行为,去排除引起汽车不恰当污染的因素。担心除非这种危害是即时的和可见的,否则美国公众不会有反应。担心EPA会再次表现出对工业的宽容。有三种方法可减轻我的担心:检查,减少(汽油中)铅含量,最重要的一点是要认识到这一点。

  2.讲述故事

  以故事做结尾效果不俗,因为故事有助于听众记住演讲的内容。故事不像总结那样直接,但是如果你能找到一个与中心思想或主题相关的生动形象的故事,那么效果也会相当不错。听众只要回想起这个故事,就会想起你的演讲内容。

  新西部中心主任菲利普在俄亥俄州托莱多大学毕业典礼上给毕业生作演讲时就运用了一个故事做结尾。他谈到在不到4分钟的时间里跑完1英里路程第一人班尼斯特。继1954年班尼斯特取得的这个成绩之后,一个又一个赛跑者步其后尘。菲利普是这样把这个故事与主题联系到一起的。

  举例:

  赛跑者和教练员都信仰他们的目标。他们都相信他们自己,并在他们新的准备和训练方法中确立自信。有了志在必得的勇气,他们就开始了奋斗,一次又一次,成绩与日俱进。所以,这正是我今天想跟你们说的。严守自由的传统。信奉我们的社会,相信它有能力为愿意冒险、热心变革的人提供新的机会。但是,重要的是,要相信你自己。对自己的准备和锤炼充满信心。然后,开始奋斗,一次又一次……天天向上。

  3.运用引言

  你还可以运用一句与中心思想或主题相称的引言结束演讲。你可以直接引用,或者如果你不想全部引用的话,也可以进行解释。无论如何,一定要让听众清楚引言或者被引用的人与你的演讲内容的关系。

  明尼苏达州肯考迪娅学院的学生玛丽曾做过一个关于儿童专门紧急保健的必要性的演讲,运用了一句引言结束全篇,看看她是如何运用的。

  举例:

  现在大家知道了儿童需要专门的紧急保健,而现行的制度却并没有给予他们。通过我提出的这些办法,我们可以尽我们的能力来保证我们所关心的孩子不再成为另一个改革的实验品。我愿意引用理查德·菲拉医生的话来强调目前行动的必要性。菲拉医生说:“最坏的结果是我们做了所有的努力,但孩子还是去世了,而父母还走过来感谢医生。他们会说:‘我们知道你已尽了全力。’那样我就会很头疼,因为我知道通常这不是真的。”

  4.呼应开头

  结束演讲的另一个方法就是在结尾处呼应开头。这种从哪里开始再到哪里结束的技巧能使听众有圆满感。此时,你要向听众展示你演讲的主要观点与开场白中的介绍是如何相关的。

  你已经知道格雷琴·里克特同学如何用一个故事来演讲“卫生保健作战地带”的。现在再来看一下她的结尾是如何与开场白呼应的。

  举例:

  加利福尼亚州急诊室里的提姆·德芙梅尔的英雄行为产生了一些健康的成果,所有三名医师都将完全康复,急诊室的安全通过安装防弹玻璃和门禁系统大大提高了。对医疗区域的攻击需要我们全力反击。总之,我们在医院里惟一需要做的是对我们医生和护士安全的努力。

  5.提出问题

  如同你在演讲开始时用一个问题来引起听众的好奇心一样,你也可以在结尾处提出问题。通常这种方法用在结束一个试图说服人的演讲,但也可用在有关信息、招待以及鼓励性的演讲。在说服性演讲中,可用于刺激听众采取行动。与之相反的是在另一些演讲中,当你提出问题时,你给了听众值得思考的东西。

  例如,Norm Bertasavage用极具说服力的提问来结束对当地美国军团的演讲。他的演讲是为了纪念二战时盟军登陆诺曼底与希特勒部队作战日十五周年的。他是这样来结尾的。

  举例:

  这天是最后清算的日子,是偿付的日子,要为过去的失败付出。我们今天在此回忆那天那些付出代价的人,我们必须问自己一个问题。如果我们再一次让自由和公正从我们的手中溜走,谁还会来恢复民主和西方文明呢?请记住这些。

  6.号召行动

  以前你已了解约翰·福格森在退伍军人节集会上向高中生做的演讲。现在再来看一下福格森是如何结束演讲的。

  举例:

  让我给你们出一个主意。假如你真的崇敬这些老兵,不要止步于这次集会。去寻找那些曾当过兵的人(也许是你的父亲、母亲、叔叔、阿姨、老师或邻居)。感谢他们的付出,让他们与你们共同分享他们的感受和回忆。通过这些活动,你会使他们知道你理解和珍惜他们的贡献和经验,使他们感到真切的自豪。我再一次从内心深处感谢你们今天早上能让我有讲话的机会。

  福格森演讲结尾的第一句话告诉听众演讲快结束了;接下来的几句话要求听众采取行动,来达到结尾的目的;最后一句表示他已结束演讲。这样,福格森避免了突然的结尾,使听众自己领会到演讲要结束了。
4: Putting Your Speech Together

 OUTLINES

  Now that you have gathered enough information and skills to prepare the introduction, body, and conclusion of your speech, you are ready to reorganize it and outline it. A good outline meets four basic requirements:

  1. Each supporting point relates to the main point.

  2. Each supporting point contains only one idea.

  3. Supporting points are not repeated or restated.

  4. Each supporting parallel point has an equal level of importance.

  1. Each supporting point relates to the main point.

  Which supporting idea in the example below does not belong? Why not?Alcoholism is an international problem.

  A. Russia has a high alcoholism rate.

  B. France has the highest alcoholism rate in Europe.

  C. Alcoholics have more car accidents than nondrinkers.

  D. Japan has a severe juvenile alcoholism problem.

  The answer is C. Although it is an interesting fact, it is not directly related to the main point - alcoholism is an international problem.

  2. Each supporting point contains only one idea.

  What is wrong with the example below?

  Small cars are better than large cars.

  A. They are less expensive and easier to park.

  B. They get better gas mileage.

  Point A contains two separate ideas. The information should be outlined as follows:

  Small cars are better than large cars.

  A. They are less expensive.

  B. They are easier to park.

  C. They get better gas mileage.

  3. Supporting points are not repeated or restated.

  What is wrong with the example below?

  Students dislike the school cafeteria.

  A. There is very little to choose from.

  B. The food is too expensive.

  C. The menu is extremely limited.

  Points A and C repeat the same idea. The example below contains three supporting points that express different ideas.

  Students dislike the school cafeteria.

  A. There is very little to choose from.

  B. The food is too expensive.

  C. The eating utensils are always dirty.

  4. Each supporting parallel point has an equal level of importance.

  What is wrong with the example below?

  Sales in South America have fallen drastically.

  A. Colombia

  B. Lima

  C. Ecuador

  Points A and C are countries. Point B is a city. The points should be all cities or all countries. The information should be outlined as follows:

  Sales in South America have fallen drastically.

  A. Colombia

  B. Peru

  C. Ecuador

  

TRANSITIONS

  1. Functions of Transitions

  Transitions are words, phrases, or sentences that connect the various parts of your speech. They provide the audience with guideposts that help them follow the development of your thoughts and arguments. Use transitions in at least the following places.

  Transitions make it easy for your listeners to follow your plan for your speech. They remind your audienceswheresyou’ve been and tell themswheresyou’re going.

  Think of transitions in a speech as“signposts”along a highway as you travel from one city to another. For example, let’s say that you and a friend are en route from Miami to Disney World in Orlando. A sign that says,“Welcome to Ft. Lauderdale.”Shortly after that you see another sign that says“Orlando, 200 Miles.”You knowswheresyou’ve been and how far you are from your destination. The signposts reassure you that you are on the right road, and they help you to stay on track.

  Just as signposts on a highway are important, so are transitions in a speech. Transitions tell your audience that something new or important is about to happen in your speech.

  Here are the major transitional functions and some stylistic devices that you might use to serve these functions.

  (1) To announce the start of a major proposition or piece of evidence:

  - First, ...- A second argument...- A closely related problem...- If you want further evidence, look at...- Next, consider...- My next point...- An even more compelling argument...

  (2) To signal that you are drawing a conclusion from previously given evidence and argument:

  - Thus, ...- Therefore, ...- So, as you can see...- It follows, then, that...

  (3) To alert the audience to your introducing a qualification or exception:

  - But, ...- However, also consider...

  (4) To remind listeners of what has just been said and that it is connected with another issue that will now be considered:

  - In contrast to..., consider also...- Not only..., but also...- In addition to ..., we also need to look at...- Not only should we..., but we should also...

  (5) To signal the part of your speech that you are approaching:

  - By way of introduction...- In conclusion...- Now, let’s discuss why we are here today...- So, what’s the solution? What should we do?

  2. Content Transition

  (1) Transition after the Introduction

  Every speech needs a transition after the introduction. This transition should signal that the main part of the speech is about to begin. For example, look at the outline for“A Fabulous Fantasia Cruise”. After the introduction, the following transition signals the first section of the body:

  First, you’ll be pleased to learn about the comfortable cabins that will be your rooms for the week.

  (2) Transitions within the Body

  Transitions are also needed between each section of the body. This kind of transition generally consists of two separate sentences that provide two important functions:

  A. to review the information just presented,

  B. to preview the next section.

  For example, look at the outline for“A Fabulous Fantasia Cruise”. After talking about guest accommodations, the following transition is used before talking about the ship’s facilities:

  Now you can see how comfortable you’ll be while in your cabin. However, the ship has many facilities for you to enjoy when you leave your cabin.

  After talking about the ship’s facilities, this next transition is used before discussing ports:

  As you can see, the ship has many facilities for you to enjoy while onboard. You will need to get off the ship insgroupsto visit the four ports.

  After discussing ports, the following transition is used before introducing shore visit activities:

  You now know which exotic places you’ll be visiting. You will have a choice of many fun things to do while on shore.

  Finally, after talking about shore visit activities, the transition below is used before discussing shipboard activities:

  We hope the shore visit activities won’t tire you out too much. You’ll need your energy, because once you’re back on the ship many other activities await you!

  (3) Transition before the Conclusion

  Every speech needs a transition before the conclusion. This last transition acts as signal that the speech is about to end. For example, look at the outline for“A Fabulous Fantasia Cruise”. The last section is about shipboard activities. The following transition links the body and the conclusion:

  With all these great onboard activities, you might not even want to leave the ship at all!

  3. Question Transition

  The following is concerned with how the question transition works in conjunction with the introduction, body and conclusion.

  “Good afternoon, everyone. Thanks for the opportunity to be with you today.

  “Well, why are we here?

  “We are meeting today to discuss a problem that will have a tremendous impact on everyone here.

  “What is the problem I am referring to?”

  Tell them what the components of the problem are.

  “What are we going to do about this terrible problem?”

  Give them a solution or alternative solutions to the problem, saving yours for last. You can do this with another question transition after you’ve laid out the alterative solutions.

  “What do I think we should do?”

  Tell them what your solution is.

  “Why do I believe this is our best alternative?”

  Tell them why you do, then go to your conclusion:

  “Finally, ladies and gentlemen, what do I need from you?”

 

 REHEARSING

  Effective public speaking delivery does not come naturally - it takes practice. Learn now how to use your practice time most effectively and efficiently.

  The goal of practice is to develop a delivery that will help you achieve the purposes of your speech. Rehearsal should enable you to see how the speech will flow as a whole and to make any changes and improvements you think necessary. Through practice you will learn the speech effectively and determine how best to present it to your audience. The following procedures should assist you in using your time most effectively.

  Rehearse the Speech as a Whole Rehearse the speech from beginning to end. Do not rehearse the speech in parts. Rehearse it from getting out of your seat through the introduction, body, and conclusion, to returning to your seat. Be sure to rehearse the speech with all the examples and illustrations (and audiovisual aids if any) included. This will enable you to connect the parts of the speech and to see how they interact with each other.

  Time the Speech Time the speech during each rehearsal. Make the necessary adjustments on the basis of this timing.

  Approximate the Actual Speech Situation Rehearse the speech under conditions as close as possible to those under which you will deliver it. If possible, rehearse the speech in the same room in which you will present it. If this is impossible, try to simulate the actual conditions as close as you can - in your living room or even bathroom. If possible, rehearse the speech in front of a few supportive listeners. It is always helpful (but especially for your beginning speeches) that your listeners be supportive rather than too critical. Merelyshavingslisteners present during your rehearsal will further simulate the conditions under which you will eventually speak. Get together with two or three other students in an empty classroomswheresyou can each serve as speaker and listener.

  See Yourself as a Speaker Rehearse the speech in front of a full-length mirror. This will enable you to see yourself and to see how you will appear to the audience. This may be extremely difficult at first, and you may have to force yourself to watch. After a few attempts, however, you will begin to see the value of this experience. Practice your eye contact, your movements, and your gestures in front of the mirror.

  Incorporate Changes and Make Delivery Notes Make any changes in the speech that seem appropriate between rehearsals. Do not interrupt your rehearsal to make notes or changes. If you do, you may never experience the entire speech from beginning to end. While making these changes, note too any words whose pronunciation or articulation you wish to check. Also, insert pause notations (“slow down”warnings, and other deliver suggestions)sintosyour outline.

  If possible, record your speech (ideally, on videotape) so you can hear exactly what your listeners will hear: your volume, rate, pitch, articulation and pronunciation, and pauses. You will thus be in a better position to improve these qualities.

  Rehearse Often Rehearse the speech as often as seems necessary. Two useful guides are: (1)rehearse the speech at least three or four times, less than this is sure to be too little; (2)rehearse the speech as long as your rehearsals result in improvements in the speech or in your delivery.
第四章: 演讲稿贯通
  

提纲

  开场白、正文和结尾的材料与技巧已经万事俱备,现在只需你运用这些技巧将材料重新加以组织,列出提纲。一个理想的提纲需要达到四项要求:

  1.每个分论点都不能偏离总论点。

  2.每个分论点只能包含一个思想。

  3.分论点不能相互重复。

  4.每个平行的分论点重要程度要一样。

  1.每个分论点都不能偏离总论点。

  下面例子中的哪一个分论点与主题不符?为什么?

  酗酒是一个国际范围的问题。

  A.俄罗斯的酗酒比例很高。

  B.法国是欧洲酗酒率最高的国家。

  C.酗酒者比不饮酒者更易出车祸。

  D.日本青少年酗酒问题很严重。

  答案是C论点。虽然这个事实也很有趣,但是它与主题--酗酒是一个国际范围的问题--没有直接的关系。

  2.每个分论点只能包含一个思想。

  看看下面这个例子的问题出在哪里?

  小型汽车比大型汽车好。

  A.小型汽车的价格比较便宜,且易于停放。

  B.小型汽车1加仑汽油所行驶的里程(汽油消耗定额)多。

  分论点A包含了两个独立的思想。这个提纲可以这样组织:

  小型汽车比大型汽车好。

  A.小型汽车的价格比较便宜。

  B.小型汽车更易于停放。

  C.小型汽车1加仑汽油所行驶的里程(汽油消耗定额)多。

  3. 分论点不能相互重复。

  看看下面这个例子的问题出在哪里?

  学生不喜欢学校的自助餐厅。

  A.饭菜选择的余地很小。

  B.饭菜价格太贵。

  C.菜单目录极其有限。

  分论点A和C重复了相同的思想。下面的例子包含了三个表达不同思想的分论点。

  学生不喜欢学校的自助餐厅。

  A.饭菜选择的余地很小。

  B.饭菜价格太贵。

  C.餐具总是不卫生。

  4.每个分论点在重要程度上要一样。

  下面这个例子有什么问题?

  南美销售额狂跌。

  A.哥伦比亚

  B.利马

  C.厄瓜多尔

  分论点A和C都是国家。分论点B是一个城市。三个分论点应该要么全是城市,要么全是国家。这个提纲可以这样组织:

  南美销售额狂跌。

  A.哥伦比亚

  B.秘鲁

  C.厄瓜多尔

 

 过渡段

  1.过渡段的作用

  过渡段是指将演讲各部分串联起来的词语、短语或句子。它为听众提供标示,以利于听众理解你的思路和论点的展开。至少要在以下几个地方运用过渡段。

  过渡段使听众易于理解你的演讲构思。它可以提醒听众你讲到了哪里,并对将要讲到的内容加以提示。

  可以把演讲中的过渡段视作两城市间的公路路标。比如说,你和一位朋友正在从迈阿密到奥兰多迪斯尼世界的路上。一个路标上写着:“罗德道尔欢迎你!”过了一会儿,你又看到另一个路标:“奥兰多,200英里。”这时你就知道了自己身处何方,距离目的地还有多远。这些路标使你确信自己没有走错路,帮你继续前行。

  演讲中过渡段的重要性犹如公路路标之重要性一样。过渡段提示听众下面有新鲜的或重要的内容在等着他们。

  这里是一些主要的过渡作用与一些发挥这些作用的体裁手段。

  (1)表明开始论述某一观点或提出证据:

  - 首先,……

  - 第二个论据……

  - 一个密切相关的问题……

  - 如果你要求进一步的证据,请看……

  - 接下来,设想……

  - 我接下来要阐明的一点是……

  - 一个更有说服力的论据……

  (2)表明你要从前面给出的证据和论据中做出结论:

  - 因而,……

  - 因此,……

  - 所以,你可以看到……

  - 那么,可以推论……

  (3)提醒听众注意,你要提出判定或异议:

  - 但是,……

  - 然而,……

  (4)向听众提示刚说过的内容,提醒他们这一内容与将要讨论的另一内容相关:

  - 与……形成比照,还要考虑……

  - 不仅……,而且……

  - 此外,我们还需要看看……

  - 我们不仅应该……,而且还应该……

  (5)表明你的演讲将要说到的部分:

  - 通过介绍……

  - 总之,……

  - 现在,让我们讨论一下我们今天到这里的原因……

  - 所以,有什么解决办法呢?我们该做些什么呢?

  2.内容过渡段

  (1)开场白后的过渡段

  每一个演讲在开场白后都需要有一个过渡段。这个过渡段的作用是表明演讲的主体部分即将开始。我们以“一次神奇的幻想航行”的提纲为例。开场白后,紧接着的过渡段提示了正文第一部分的开始:

  首先,得知这周内这些舒适的船舱将成为你享用的空间,你一定会很高兴。

  (2)正文部分的过渡段

  正文的各部分之间也需要过渡段。一般来说,这种过渡段包含两个单独的句子,发挥两种重要的作用:

  A.回顾刚讲过的内容,

  B.概述将要讲述的内容。

  以“一次神奇的幻想航行”的提纲为例。在谈完旅客的膳宿之后,接下来就是一个过渡段,然后再谈客轮的其他设施:

  现在你可以看到,你在自己的船舱中有多舒适。然而,如果你走出船舱,船上还有很多设施可供你享用。

  谈完船上设施,又是一个过渡段,然后再转到港口。

  正如你所看到的,船上有很多设施可供你尽情享用。要参观港口,你得下船来。谈完港口,再来一个过渡段,然后开始谈岸上的参观活动:

  现在大家知道了将要参观哪些奇异的地方。在岸上你可以选择很多好玩的事来做。

  最后,谈完岸上的参观活动,再谈船上的活动,这之间要插上下面的过渡段:

  但愿岸上的参观不会使你精疲力竭。你需要保持精力,因为船上还有很多其他活动在等着你呢!

  (3)结尾前的过渡段

  任何演讲的结尾前都需要有过渡段。这最后一个过渡段的作用是暗示演讲即将告以段落。我们以“一次神奇的幻想航行”的提纲为例。最后一部分是关于船上活动的。下面这个过渡段在正文与结尾之间起到了连接的作用:

  有这些精彩的船上活动,没准你根本就不想下船了呢。

  3.问题过渡段

  接下来就涉及到在开场白、正文与结尾的关联中,问题过渡段是如何发挥作用的。

  “大家下午好,非常感谢今天有这样一个机会与大家在一起。

  “那么,我们为什么到这儿来呢?

  “我们今天齐聚这里,要探讨一个将会给在座的各位带来巨大影响的问题。

  “我指的是什么问题呢?”

  告诉听众问题的来龙去脉。

  “关于这个棘手的问题,我们要如何解决呢?”

  给他们提供一个解决方法或者一个可供选择方案,而把你的解决办法留到最后说。你可以在提出一个可供选择的方法之后,再利用一个问题过渡段,然后说出你的解决办法。

  “我们何去何从,我的意见呢?”

  告诉他们你的办法。

  “我为什么认为这是我们的最佳选择?”

  阐述你的理由,然后做结尾:

  “最后,女士们,先生们,我需要你们做什么呢?”

 

 演练

  生动有力的公共演讲并非自然而成--而是需要大量练习。现在我们就学习如何最有效地进行操练。

  演练的目的在于提高演讲水平,有助于你达到自己演讲的目的。通过演练,你应当明白如何将演讲一气呵成,做一些你认为必要的改动和提高。演练是学习演讲的有效方法,在这个过程中,你能够确定如何最有效地将内容传播给听众。下面这个程序有助于你最有效地运用你的时间。

  演练要从头到尾,一气呵成。不要一部分一部分地演练。从椅子上站起,做开场白、正文、结尾,一直到返回座位,都要演练。演练时一定不要漏掉例子和图表(以及视听手段)。这有助于你将演讲的各部分有效衔接,从而搞清它们之间的关系。

  掐准演讲的时间。每次演练都要掐好时间。根据这个时间进行必要的调整。

  模拟真实的演讲情形。演练的情境要尽可能与你将要演讲的情境接近。如果可能的话,就在你将要进行演讲的场所演练。如果做不到,那就尽量模拟真实情形--在客厅里或者在浴室里。如果可能的话,可以找一些支持你的听众,在其面前进行演练。听众积极配合,而不是太挑剔的话,总是很起作用(尤其是对你刚开始演讲来说)。演练时只要有听众在场,就能更好地模拟真实的演讲环境。找上两三个同学,在一间没人的教室里相互扮演演讲者和听众。

  把自己当成演讲者。站在大镜子前进行演练。这样可以使你看到自己,看清自己在听众面前会是什么样子。第一次可能会很难,你需要强迫自己观看。然而,试上几次后,你就会发现这种做法的好处。在镜子面前练习目光接触,动作手势。

  灵活多变,做好演讲提纲。在每次演练中做些适当的变化。不要打断演练来做笔记或调整。如果你做了,你可能就无法体会整个演讲如何一气呵成。做调整时,要记下那些需要核对发音的单词。同时,在提纲中要标上休止符号(“放慢”标记和其他演说建议)。

  如果可能的话,可以录下自己的演讲(最好用录像机),这样你就能完完全全地当一次自己的听众了:听到自己的音量、语速、音调、发音、声音清晰度以及停顿。这样你就能更好地加以提高。

  要经常演练。经常演练很有必要。两条颇有价值的指导原则:(1)至少要演练3~4次,(2)只要演练有助于演讲质量的提高,就要不断演练。
5: Speaking to Inform

 WHAT IS AN INFORMATIVE SPEECH

  Informative speaking is all around us. Any speech is an informative speech if it present information to an audience. A report, a teacher’s explanation, and a talk at asgroupsmeeting are all examples of informative speeches.

  When do we make informative speeches? We make them all the time. Whenever we give a stranger direction, explain a problem to a mechanic, or describe an illness to a doctor, we are speaking to inform.

  The goal in giving an informative speech is to state ideas simply, clearly, and interestingly. If you achieve this goal, the audience will understand and remember your speech. In this chapter, you will learn how to build an informative speech.

  

PREPARING THE INTRODUCTION, BODY AND CONCLUSION

  Step 1: Prepare an Attention-Getting Opener

  At the beginning of your speech, it is very important to grab your audience’s attention and make them interested in what you have to say. Four different ways to prepare an interesting, attention-getting introduction follow:

  (1)Ask your audience a series of rhetorical questions.

  Rhetorical questions are asked for dramatic effect with no answers expected. Your listeners will immediately be interested in knowing the answers. The following rhetorical questions were used to open a speech about the process of getting a tattoo:

  What can cost ten dollars or a thousand dollars?

  What can be every color of the rainbow?

  What can be with you as long as you live?

  What can you wear on your arm, your cheek, your leg, or even your back?

  (2)Tell a story.

  People love to listen to a story. They want to find out what it is about. This story was used to open a speech about the Gold Museum in Bogotá, Colombia:

  A guard took mesintosa square room with no lights. The room was so black I couldn’t even see my own feet. All of a sudden a hidden electric wall closed behind me. There was no way out. I thought I was in a tomb. All at once bright lights came on. I was surrounded by gold on all four sides!

  (3)State a surprising fact.

  The statement below was used to introduce a speech about the billion-dollar business of services, or products to get almost anything you want without cash:

  You can get almost anything you want without cash! And you can begin today!

  (4) State a well-known quotation.

  This quotation from William Shakespeare’s Hamlet was used to open a speech about the disadvantages of borrowing:

  Neither a borrower nor a lender be, for loan oft loses both itself and friend.

  Step 2: Prepare the Body

  Then prepare the body of your speech. Arrange the points of your speech in a clear, logical manner. That way, your audience can follow you, understand your information, and remember what you have said. Insgroupsto do this, it is important to choose an organizational pattern that fits your topic.

  Read about the eight organizational patterns below. Then, choose the best one for your particular topic.

  (1)Past Present-Future. Use this pattern to discuss how something once was, how it has changed, and how it will be in the future. For example, in discussing the Olympics, you might organize your information under the following three headings:

  Ⅰ.The history of the Olympics

  Ⅱ. The Olympics today

  Ⅲ. The future of the Olympics

  (2)Time. Use this pattern to describe how processes, personal experiences, events, or activities happen by the hour, part of the day, week, month, or year. It can also be used to explain the steps in a process. For example, in speaking about making a speech, you might organize your information under the following headings:

  Ⅰ.Choosing a topic

  Ⅱ. Gathering information

  Ⅲ. Making an outline

  Ⅳ. Presenting the speech

  (3)Problem-Solution.Use this pattern to speak about a specific problem and ways to solve it. (Note: A problem isn’t always a negative situation, such as crime or child abuse. It can also be a positive situation, such as choosing a career or about the problem of choosing.) For example, in speaking about the problem of choosing the college thats right for you, you might present the following solutions:

  Ⅰ.Read the different college catalogs.

  Ⅱ. Visit campuses of different colleges.

  Ⅲ. Talk to people who attend various colleges.

  Ⅳ. Talk to teachers at the colleges you are considering.

  (4)  Location.Use this pattern to divide a topicsintosdifferent geographical locations. For example, in speaking about interesting marriage customs, you might use the following sequence:

  Ⅰ.Marriage customs in Japan

  Ⅱ.Marriage customs in Saudi Arabia

  Ⅲ. Marriage customs in the United States

  (5) Cause-Effect.Use this pattern to describe a particular situation and its effect. For example, in speaking about the effects of cigarette smoking, you might discuss:

  Ⅰ.The effects of smoking on pregnant women

  Ⅱ. The effect of secondhand smoke

  Ⅲ. The effects of smoking on people with allergies

  (6) Effect-Cause. Use this pattern do describe a particular situation and its causes. For example, in speaking about reasons for drug addiction, you might discuss:

  Ⅰ.The easy availability of drugs

  Ⅱ. The need to escape from the pressures of work

  Ⅲ. The lack of education about harmful effects of drugs

  (7) Related Subtopics. Use this pattern to divide one topicsintosdifferent parts, or subtopics. For example, in speaking about false advertising, you might discuss:

  Ⅰ. False advertising on television

  Ⅱ. False advertising in magazines

  Ⅲ. False advertising on the radio

  (8)Advantage-Disadvantage. Use this pattern to talk about both positive and negative aspects of a topic in a balanced, objective manner. For example, in speaking about the death penalty, you might discuss:

  Ⅰ.Advantages of capital punishment

  Ⅱ. Disadvantages of capital punishment

  Step 3: Prepare a Summary

  Every speech needs a summary of the information presented. The best way to summarize your information is to remind your audience of what you said by repeating the main points covered in the body of your speech.

  Example 1

  Well, I’ve given you some very important information today. You now know:

  A. How to prepare if a hurricane is coming

  B. What safety measures to make during the storm

  C. What to do after the hurricane is over

  Example 2

  As you can see, the Olympic Games are very important to people all over the world. I hope you learned some interesting information about:

  A. The history of the Olympics

  B. The Olympics today

  C. The future of the Olympic Games

  Step 4: Prepare Memorable Concluding Remarks

  Every speech needs an ending that leaves the audience thinking about and remembering what was said. Like attention-getting openers, memorable concluding remarks can take the form of rhetorical questions, stories, surprising facts, or quotations. Of these suggestions, quotations are popular among many famous public speakers.

  Example 1

  President John F. Kennedy ended many of his speeches with this quotation from the poet Robert Browning:“Some men see things as they are, and ask,‘Why’? I dare to dream of things that never were, and ask,‘Why’not?”

  Example 2

  Civil-rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. ended his famous“I Have a Dream”speech with words from an old spiritual song:“Free at last, free at last, thank God almighty, we are free at last.”

  Say your memorable concluding remarks slowly and clearly, maintaining eye contact with your audience. Be as dramatic and confident as possible!

 

 OUTLINING AN INFORMA-TIVE SPEECH

  The outline that follows shows how one student outlined an informative speech. Notice how it includes the following components:

  Attention-getting opener

  Preview

  Body

  Summary

  Presentation

  Memorable concluding remarks

  Also, notice how transitions have been used to connect the components.

  ATTENTION-GETTING OPENER

  Every student in this room has something in common with famous astronauts, Olympic athletes, actors, politicians, and business executive. It’s a common affliction that causes pain, suffering, and distress. Can you guess what it is? I’ll tell you. It’s called stage fright.

  PREVIEW

  Today we will be learning four major facts about stage fright.

  Ⅰ.The physical symptoms of stage fright

  Ⅱ. The causes of stage fright

  Ⅲ. Famous people who have had stage fright

  Ⅳ. What can be done about stage fright

  TRANSITION: OK, let’s get started on our investigation of stage fright by first looking at its six major symptoms.

  BODY

  Ⅰ. Physical symptoms of stage fright

  A. Rapid breathing

  B. Rapid heart rate

  C. Dry mouth

  D. Butterflies in stomach

  E.Increased perspiration

  F. Trembling hands

  TRANSITION: Now you understand the symptoms of stage fright. Let’s continue our investigation by examining the causes of stage fright.

  Ⅱ. Causes of stage fright

  A. Many people worry that they’ll forget what they want to say.

  B. Others are afraid that they’ll look silly.

  C. Some people think that the audience won’t like them.

  D. International students might worry that their English isn’t very good.

  TRANSITION: Now you are aware of some of the causes of stage fright. Let’s continue our inquirysintosstage fright by looking at a few famous people who have suffered from this affliction.

  Ⅲ. Famous people who have had stage fright

  A.Winston Churchill once said that he thought there was a block of ice in his stomach each time he made a speech.

  B. Julio Iglesias has revealed that he is nervous about his pronunciation when speaking English.

  C. Jane Fonda has admitted to having“tremendous fear.”

  D. Olivia Newton-John admits to shaking and crying before a performance.

  TRANSITION: As you can see, you are in good company with famous people who have has stage fright. Now, let’s investigate what you can do to overcome this common problem.

  Ⅳ.What can be done about stage fright

  A. Short-term solutions

  1. Be thoroughly prepared and practice before a presentation.

  2. Take your time before you start to speak.

  a) Gently put your notes on the speaker’s stand.

  b) Establish eye contact with your audience before beginning.

  c) Take several deep breaths before beginning.

  B. Long-term solutions

  1.Remember that stage fright is normal.

  2. Get as much experience as possible.

  3. Talk about stage fright with friends.

  TRANSITION: Now that you understand what you can do to reduce stage fright, our investigation is complete.

  SUMMARY

  You should now understand four important facts about stage fright.

  Ⅰ. The physical symptoms of stage fright

  Ⅱ.The causes of stage fright

  Ⅲ. Famous people who have had stage fright

  Ⅳ. What can be done about stage fright

  MEMORABLE CONCLUDING REMARKS

  In conclusion, stage fright is like a lion in a cage. It’s only dangerous if it’s allowed to roam free! Now that you know how to deal with stage fright, you’ll be able to keep this beast under control. Remember, as long as you are in control of it, your stage fright, like the lion, will be unable to harm you!
第五章: 信息性演讲
  

什么叫信息性演讲

  信息性演讲随处可见。任何演讲,只要向听众提供了信息,就可称之为信息性演讲。新闻报道、教师的讲解、会议发言都算得上典型的信息性演讲。

  信息性演讲应用于什么场合呢?答案是:任何场合。给陌生人指路,向机修工说明问题,还有向医生说明病情,我们都是在提供信息。

  信息性演讲的目标是把观点陈述得简洁清楚、富有情趣。做到了这一点,听众才能对演讲的内容深刻领会,过耳不忘。本章旨在教你学会如何进行信息性演讲。

  

开场白、正文和结尾的准备

  步骤1:准备一个引人入胜的开头。

  在演讲的开头,至关重要的是抓住听众的注意力,激发起他们对演讲内容的兴趣。有四种方法可以把开场白做得趣味盎然、引人入胜。

  (1)向听众提出一系列的设问。

  设问的目的是为了取得强烈的效果,并不需要听众来回答。听众会立刻对问题的答案产生兴趣。一个关于制作纹身过程的演讲采用了下面这些设问:

  什么东西可值10美元,又价值上千?

  什么东西如同彩虹七色俱全?

  什么东西能一生与你相伴?

  什么东西你可以饰于胳膊、脸颊、腿部,甚至后背?

  (2)讲述故事。

  人人都喜欢听故事,都愿意探寻故事的来龙去脉。一个关于哥伦比亚波哥大黄金博物馆的演讲就是用下面这个故事作为开篇的。

  一个哨兵将我带进一间方形的屋子,屋里没有灯光,漆黑一片,我甚至看不到自己的脚。一扇隐秘的电动门突然在我身后关闭。任何出口都没有。我觉得自己如同身处坟墓之中。突然,雪亮的灯光亮起。我已经身陷黄金之中了。

  (3)陈述一个惊人的事实。

  下面这段陈述就是用来作为一个关于你不用现钞就可以得到几乎任何你想要的东西的上亿美元的服务企业或产品的开场白。

  你可以得到几乎任何你想要的东西,而且不用现钞!今天你就可以开始。

  (4)引用一句广为人知的谚语。

  这是引自莎士比亚的《哈姆雷特》中的一句话。一个探讨借贷弊端的演讲就是用它来开篇的。

  无论是借款人,还是出借人,在借贷中经常会迷失自己和朋友。

  步骤2:正文的准备

  现在准备演讲的正文部分。把你演讲的要点条理清晰、逻辑分明地组织起来。这样,听众就能够跟上你的思路,领会你的信息,记住演讲的内容。要想做到这一点,关键是选择一个与你的演讲主题相适应的组织结构。

  读一读下面这八种组织结构。然后,为你的主题选一个最为合适的结构。

  (1)过去、现在和将来结构这种结构用来探讨某一事物曾经如何,现在有何发展变化,将来又会怎样。比如,讨论奥运会,你可以按下面三个标题来组织材料:

  Ⅰ.奥运会的历史

  Ⅱ.奥运会的现状

  Ⅲ.奥运会的明天

  (2)时间结构这一结构用来描述某些过程、个人经历、事件或者活动是如何按照时、日、周、月、年发生的。它还可以用来说明某一过程的步骤。比如,探讨演讲,你可以按照下面的标题组织材料:

  Ⅰ.选题

  Ⅱ.组材

  Ⅲ.列提纲

  Ⅳ.作演讲

  (3)问题解决结构这种结构用来探讨某一具体问题以及解决办法。(注意:问题并不一定是负面的,如犯罪、虐待儿童。它也可以是正面的,如择业或关于选择的问题。)比如,探讨如何选择一个适合自己的大学的问题,你可以提出如下方法:

  Ⅰ.阅读不同的大学目录

  Ⅱ.参观不同的大学校园

  Ⅲ.向考入不同大学的大学生咨询

  Ⅳ.向你意向中的大学老师咨询

  (4)位置关系结构运用这一结构,你可以按照地理方位的不同来分述主题。比如,演讲的主题是非常有趣的婚俗,你可以按下面这个顺序来进行:

  Ⅰ.日本的婚俗

  Ⅱ.沙特阿拉伯的婚俗

  Ⅲ.美国的婚俗

  (5)原因结果结构这一结构用于描述一种特定的情形及其结果。比如,演讲的主题是吸烟的影响,你可以这样进行:

  Ⅰ.吸烟对孕妇的影响

  Ⅱ.二手烟的影响

  Ⅲ.吸烟对过敏人群的影响

  (6)结果原因结构这一结构用于描述一种特定的情形及其原因。比如:演讲的主题是毒品成瘾的原因,你可以这样进行:

  Ⅰ.毒品容易获得

  Ⅱ.摆脱工作压力的需要

  Ⅲ.对毒品的危害性缺乏教育

  (7)相关副题结构运用这一结构可将一个主题分成几个不同的副题进行阐述。比如,演讲的内容为虚假广告,你可以这样来展开:

  Ⅰ.电视虚假广告

  Ⅱ.杂志虚假广告

  Ⅲ.广播虚假广告

  (8)利弊结构运用这一结构可谈论一个主题的正反两个方面,不偏不倚,客观公正。比如,谈论死刑,你可以这样进行:

  Ⅰ.死刑的好处

  Ⅱ.死刑的弊端

  步骤3:准备小结

  任何演讲都需要对所讲过的内容加以总结。总结内容的最好方法就是重复正文中涵盖的要点,向听众提示你说过的内容。

  例1

  好啦,今天我给大家讲的这些内容都很重要,现在大家都已经明白了:

  A.如果飓风来临,该先做好哪些准备工作。

  B.飓风肆虐时,该采取哪些安全措施。

  C.飓风过后,还需要做些什么。

  例2

  正像大家所看到的,奥运会是全世界人们的大事,我希望大家对这些有意思的内容都已经很清楚了:

  A.奥运会的历史

  B.奥运会的现状

  C.奥运会的明天

  步骤4:准备一个回味无穷的结束语

  任何演讲的结尾都应该让人回味无穷。与吸引人的开篇一样,结束语要想绕梁三日,也可采取设问、故事、惊人的事实或者引语等形式。这些建议、引语在很多著名的公共演讲者中广为流传。

  例1

  肯尼迪在多次演讲中都引用过诗人布朗宁的一句话来结束演说:“有些人只看到存在的事物,然后问‘为什么?’而我敢于梦想那些永不可能的事情,然后问‘为什么不呢?’”

  例2

  民权领袖马丁·路德·金在他那篇著名的《我有一个梦想》中,引用了一首古老圣歌的歌词作为结尾:“终于自由了,终于自由了,感谢万能的上帝,我们终于自由了。”

  结束语语速要慢,口齿要清楚,要保持与听众目光接触,要尽可能地富于表现力,信心满怀。

  

概述信息性演讲

  下面是一个学生所列的信息性演讲的提纲。注意这个提纲包含了下列哪些要素:

  引人入胜的开篇

  演讲概述

  正文

  总结

  过耳不忘的结束语

  同时,注意过渡段是如何对各部分进行衔接的。步骤1:引人入胜的开篇

  在座的每一位同学与著名的宇航员、奥林匹克运动员、演员、政治家以及经理都有相同之处。这是一个给人带来烦闷、苦恼和忧虑的共同的痛苦。你能猜出是什么吗?我告诉你们,它就是怯场。

  步骤2:演讲概述

  今天我们将了解怯场的四个主要问题。

  Ⅰ.怯场的生理征兆

  Ⅱ.怯场的原因

  Ⅲ.哪些名人曾怯过场

  Ⅳ.怯场时该怎么办

  过渡段:好啦,让我们从怯场的六个主要征兆入手,开始进行探讨。

  步骤3:正文

  Ⅰ.怯场的生理征兆

  A.呼吸加速

  B. 心跳加速

  C. 口干舌燥

  D. 恶心欲呕

  E. 出汗增多

  F. 双手颤抖

  过渡段:现在大家了解了怯场的征兆。下面我们继续探究怯场的原因。

  Ⅱ.怯场的原因

  A.很多人担心忘词。

  B.还有些人担心自己的样子太傻。

  C.有些人认为听众厌恶他们。

  D.外国学生可能担心自己的英语不纯正。

  过渡段:现在大家明白了怯场是由哪些原因引起的。下面我们继续进行,接着看一看一些曾经为怯场而倍感苦恼的名人。

  Ⅲ.曾经怯过场的名人

  A.丘吉尔曾说,每次演讲他都觉得胃里像放着一块冰。

  B.胡里奥曾透露,一说英语他就为自己的发音感到紧张。

  C.简·方达承认自己“非常害怕”。

  D.牛顿约翰承认自己在演讲前抖动不已,大喊大叫。

  过渡段:正如你所看到的,不少名人曾经怯过场,与你不相上下。现在,我们再看看如何克服这一常见的问题。

  Ⅳ.怯场时该怎么办?

  ①权宜之计

  A.在演讲之前作充分的准备和练习。

  B.开始演讲前,从容不迫。

  a)将你的演讲稿轻轻地放到演说桌上。

  b)开口之前与听众进行目光接触。

  c)做几口深呼吸,然后再开始。

  ②长期解决办法

  A.记住,怯场纯属正常现象。

  B.尽可能获取丰富的经验。

  C.与朋友讨论怯场。

  过渡段:现在,大家已经搞清楚了如何消除怯场,我们的探讨也告一段落了。

  步骤4:总结

  大家现在应该弄明白了怯场的四个重要问题。

  Ⅰ.怯场的生理征兆

  Ⅱ.怯场的原因

  Ⅲ.哪些名人曾怯过场

  Ⅳ.怯场时该怎么办

  步骤5:过耳不忘的结束语

  总之,怯场就如同笼中雄狮,只有任其逍遥才有危险。大家既然明白了如何对付怯场,也就能够缚住这一猛兽。记住,只要把它控制住了,怯场就如同笼中雄狮,不会对你构成威胁。
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